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Term Definition
complex partial seizures

affect a larger area of the brain than simple partial seizures and they affect consciousness; person cannot interact normally with other people, is not in control of his or her movements, speech or actions, doesn't know what he or she is doing, and cannot remember afterwards what happened during the seizure

congenital abnormality

significant, definable, structural and/or developmental abnormalities observed at birth

congential heart defect

a problem with the structure of the heart that are present at birth; the most common type of major birth defect

Cortical Vision Impairment (CVI)

a condition where children show abnormal visual responses that aren

CPAP (Continuous Positive Airway Pressur

therapy that uses a machine to help a person who has obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) breathe more easily during sleep; increases air pressure in your throat so that your airway does not collapse when you breathe in

Crohn's Disease

an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD); causes inflammation of the lining of your digestive tract, which can lead to abdominal pain, severe diarrhea and even malnutrition

CT (computed tomography)

a medical imaging method employing tomography created by computer processing; a three dimential image of the inside of an object is generated from a large series of two-dimensional X-ray images taken around a single axis of rotation


bluish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes caused by a lack of oxygen in the blood


occurs when you lose more fluid than you take in, and your body doesn't have enough water and other fluids to carry out its normal functions


a mood disorder marked especially by sadness, inactivity, difficulty with thinking and concentration, a significant increase or decrease in appetite and time spent sleeping, feelings of dejection and hopelessness

diabetes insipidus (vasopressin deficien

a disorder that is caused by insufficient secretion of vasopressin by the pituitary gland or by a failure of the kidneys to respond to circulating vasopressin; characterized by intense thirst and by the excretion of large amounts of urine.

diabetes, type 1

an autoimmune disease that occurs when T cells attack beta cells in the pancreas that are needed to produce insulin, so that the pancreas makes too little, or no insulin; the body is not able to metabolize blood glucose (sugar), to use it efficiently for energy, and toxic acids build up in the body; there is a genetic predisposition to type 1 diabetes

diabetes, type 2

an autoimmune disease that occurs when the beta cells of the pancreas produce insulin but the body is unable to use it effectively; may not carry the same risk of death from ketoacidosis, but involves many of the same risks of complications as type 1 diabetes


medication used to treat episodes of increased seizures (e.g., acute repetitive seizures, breakthrough seizures) in people who are already taking medications to control their seizures; only recommended for short-term treatment of seizure attacks

difficulty focusing

having trouble concentrating on a specific activity

difficulty tracking

having trouble measuring either the point of gaze ("where we are looking") or the motion of an eye relative to the head

dilated renal pelvis

outlet of the kidney is enlarged where urine is passed into the ureter

duplicate or extra kidney

third kidney that normally does not cause complications, but occasionally can cause urinary tract infections

echocardiogram (echo)

medical test that uses sound waves (ultrasound) to create a moving picture of the heart to look at its structure and function


an inflammatory condition of the skin characterized by redness, itching, and oozing vesicular lesions which become scaly, crusted, or hardened


measure of brain waves to show the type and location of the activity in the brain during a seizure; also used to evaluate people who are having problems associated with brain function

electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG)

medical test that checks for problems with the electrical activity of your heart

failure to gain weight normally

a low rate of increase in weight

failure to thrive

in children, either a low weight for the child's age or a low rate of increase in weight, usually caused by a medical or physiological condition


ability to see distant objects better than objects at close range

feeding difficulty

failure of an infant or child under six years of age to eat enough food to gain weight and grow normally over a period of one month or more; can also be characterized by the loss of a significant amount of weight over one month; similar to failure to thrive, except that no medical or physiological condition can explain the low food intake or lack of growth

flat Feet

a condition of the feet in which the arch of the instep is flattened and the entire sole touches the ground

fMRI (functional Magnetic Resonance Imag

a medical test that directly measures the blood flow in the brain, thereby providing information on brain activity


the breaking of a bone or cartilage

GERD (gastroesophageal reflux disease)

a chronic condition in which acid from the stomach flows back into the lower esophagus, causing pain or tissue damage

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